"Ramblins from Forrests 'Riter"
By Ed Butler, Tennessee Division Heritage Defense Chairman

Most of us are aware that General P. G. T. Beauregard and others designed the Confederate Battle Flag soon after the First Battle of Bull Run. The basic design of the Battle Flag was inspired by the Saint Andrew's Cross which is also the National Flag of Scotland. The origin of the Saint Andrew's Cross is not well known.

Many bible scholars think Andrew and his brother Simon, who was later called Peter, were the first disciples called by Jesus to be " fishers of men". It is thought that Andrew became a missionary in Asia Minor and Greece after Jesus was crucified. In 60 AD the Romans pronounced Andrew a heretic and decided to crucify him. Andrew asked that they crucify him on an X shaped cross as he did not feel worthy of being crucified on a cross that was shaped like the one used to crucify Jesus. In 370 AD Emperor Constantine ordered Saint Rule to carry some of Saint Andrew's bones to a Pictish settlement on the Eastern coast of Scotland. Saint Rule had received a vision that told him to take Saint Andrew's remains to the "ends of the earth" for safe keeping. Saint Rule removed a tooth, arm bone, kneecap, and some fingers from Saint Andrew's tomb in Constantinople. It is believed these relics were destroyed during the Scottish Reformation.

The settlement where Saint Rule carried the remains became known as the town of St. Andrews and the relics were placed in a small chapel. Later the Cathedral of St. Andrew was built and became a center for medieval religious pilgrims. St Andrews is located in county Fife on the East coast of Scotland. County Fife is the next county north of Edinburgh.

In 832 AD a Pictish army under King Angus MacFergus was battling a force of Northumbrians for control of the region that included St. Andrews. The night before the battle, Saint Andrew appeared to Angus in a vision and on the field of battle the next day a saltire, or X shaped cross, similar to the one that Saint Andrew was crucified on, appeared in the sky. The Picts and Scots that had joined King MacFergus, were much encouraged by the appearance of the cross and drove the English from the field of battle.

The leader of the Saltire, Athelstan, was killed in this battle. The site of the battle is still known as Athelstaneford or "the ford of Athelstan". The colors of the flag represent the white of clouds and the azure color of the sky. From that

time on, the Saltire became the national emblem of the Scottish people. The design and colors are also worn on tunics and headgear of Scottish soldiers as a way to identify them on a field of battle.

During the days of the Scottish Reformation, when Presbyterian reformers were trying to remove all vestiges of the Catholic Church in Scotland, only the Saltire survived as it was used on the flags of many of the reformers. In 1707, Scotland and England united to form the United Kingdom. A new flag with the Crosses of Saint Andrew and Saint George was designed. Later when Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom, the Cross of Saint Patrick, a red saltire on a white background, was added to the design.

Today many nations, states and organizations have incorporated the basic design of the Saint Andrew's Cross in their flags. A memorial to the "Battle of the Saltire" has been erected at Athelstaneford. It depicts the battle with the two armies facing each other and in the sky above them is the saltire of Saint Andrews. Above the monument on a flagpole permanently flies a Saint Andrew's Cross flag, which is lit during the hours of darkness.

The inscription of the monument states:
Tradition says that near this place in times remote Pictish and Scottish warriors about to defeat an army of Northumbrians saw against a blue sky a great white cross like St. Andrew's, and in it's image made a banner which became the flag of Scotland.

"Daring Covert Acts"
Robert Cobb Kennedy and the
New York Fires

Though he wasn't the only conspirator, Robert Cobb Kennedy was the only man caught and tried for one of the most daring covert acts of the Confederate rebellion, the planned destruction by fire of New York City, in retaliation for the federal ravaging of the Shenandoah Valley and the devastation of Atlanta. The fires, set on November 25, 1864, ensnared Manhattan's busiest hotels and theaters and caused panic and looting throughout the city, but failed to do the extent of damage intended.

Confederate Col. Robert M. Martin of Kentucky obtained permission from Confederate Secret Service headquarters to ignite all the city's hotels with "Greek Fire," a highly flammable substance, in hopes of causing a general conflagration. A chemist furnished the eight



See DARING on page 3